Until a new China policy is more firmly locked in bureaucratically and a new consensus about China is reached, proposing an overarching strategy and set of objectives is premature. The U.S. discussion may be more open than it has been in years, but first-order questions about the ultimate objectives of China policy have not yet been reassessed and answered. The United States sits in a transitional phase, at least until the Trump administration solidifies bureaucratic policy guidance and a subsequent administration builds from its foundation. What directions succeeding administrations take, of course, may vary, regardless of whether they are Democratic or Republican. For the near future, it is more appropriate to assess U.S. policy tools and how to maximize leverage rather than trying to pin down an overall strategy.
The toolkit outlined above reflects the requirements of crafting a long-term, competitive strategy. But rethinking the toolkit is only a beginning. A larger conversation is needed about this new period in U.S.-China relations. The past policy of engagement promoted ties of all kinds and at all levels, with only a few restrictions legislated by Congress or treaty commitments. Moving away from this approach will require new modes of thinking as well as reapplying American values to the question of how to engage with the Chinese party-state.
Peter Mattis is a research fellow in China Studies at the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation and a contributing editor to War on the Rocks. Mr. Mattis previously worked as a counterintelligence analyst at the Central Intelligence Agency before leaving government service to work as editor of the China Brief and to be a fellow at the Jamestown Foundation.
42 Examples of potential failures to prosecute successfully include incidents involving former FBI informant Katrina Leung and University of Management and Technology President Yanping Chen. Examples of apparent rushes to judgment include allegations involving Los Alamos nuclear scientist Wen Ho Lee, Temple University physics professor Xiaoxing Xi, and National Weather Service hydrologist Sherry Chen.
There are a couple of ways to play the games. The first is solitaire play, working the scenarios just like you would solve a brain teaser or crossword puzzle. This is the form the TDGs take in these pages. The time commitment is usually no more than 15 minutes to a half hour. This method exercises the decision-making process but lacks certain advantages of the second method.
This version more resembles a conventional wargame than the others and takes up to a couple of hours to play. But rather than relying on movement ratings, casualty tables, and dice rolls like a board game, the two-sided TDG relies on the judgment of the controller for its results. The actual results are not as important as the fact that they create new tactical problems for the players to solve. This version works best if each team includes several players, a senior commander, and several subordinates to lead the different units.
First, disturbing to all Marines in OIF was the incautious driving of Iraqi civilians who persisted in driving during combat conditions. Due to the constant but statistically improbable threat of a suicide car bomber, this phenomenon resulted in tragic casualties. The research and development community should work hard to develop a non- lethal means of signaling to, and perhaps startling, civilian drivers so they will not persist in driving into life-threatening situations.
If storm troop tactics are the system in which the rifleman exists then ideally every rifleman is a basic practitioner of storm troop tactics. Marines require some simple conceptual structure to understand the tactical system they inhabit. The three rules of a Marine Rifleman (see Figure 2), based upon the German Storm Troop Tactic Rules provide this mental framework for the individual. However, this simple tool goes beyond the individual and reinforces Marine Corps doctrinal concepts.
Attrition in these cases is our asymmetric advantage. The bottom line is that if attrition works to bend the will of the enemy, then by all means use it. What those who decry attrition warfare most likely intend on conveying is that we should avoid wars of symmetry. Battles between symmetrical forces generally incur somewhat balanced casualty rates as armies grind away at each other without decisive result. This was certainly the case in World War I, but is not necessarily so for all scenarios. Specific words have specific meaning.
The work should report new results, new applications, or new developments of interest. The manuscript must provide introductory material and context for the work. It must be clear what is new in the work and how it relates to other work in the field, and related work must be referenced appropriately. Models should be verified by data or some other means. There must be an analysis of data that provides conclusions that are general beyond the specific devices or system studied. The information provided must be sufficient for others to make use of the approach, results, etc. so that the impact is not limited to the particular system or application used in the manuscript.
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The National Research Council's (NRC) Framework describes a vision of what it means to be proficient in science; it rests on a view of science as both a body of knowledge and an evidence-based, model and theory building enterprise that continually extends, refines, and revises knowledge. It presents three dimensions that will be combined to form each standard:
Although engineering design is similar to scientific inquiry there are significant differences. For example, scientific inquiry involves the formulation of a question that can be answered through investigation, while engineering design involves the formulation of a problem that can be solved through design. Strengthening the engineering aspects of the Next Generation Science Standards will clarify for students the relevance of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (the four STEM fields) to everyday life.
The NRC cross-cutting concepts have application across all domains of science. As such they are a way of linking the different domains of science. They include: Patterns, similarity, and diversity; Cause and effect; Scale, proportion and quantity; Systems and system models; Energy and matter; Form and function; Stability and change. The Framework also emphasizes that these concepts need to be made explicit for students because they provide an organizational schema for interrelating knowledge from various science fields into a coherent and scientifically-based view of the wor
In its initial protest, Six3 argued that a small business meeting the specified size standard of $7 million could not possibly have the personnel required to meet the solicitation's requirements; it was unlikely that a small business would be capable of successfully deploying qualified personnel immediately after award due to high demand for individuals with the required skill sets; small businesses were unlikely to have the infrastructure necessary to recruit, train, and manage the necessary personnel; and small businesses were not financially capable of performing. The protester further argued that the sources sought notice failed to elicit information that INSCOM needed to assess the capability of small businesses to perform, and that the small businesses might be intending to rely on large business partners to an improper extent. The agency responded to these arguments in its report, maintaining that both [deleted] and [deleted] were rapidly growing companies that had demonstrated the capability to take on larger workloads; the protester had failed to furnish any support for its claim that small businesses were unlikely to be able to deploy qualified personnel (and to the extent that there was any validity to the protester's argument regarding high demand for personnel with biometrics-related qualifications, it would apply equally to large businesses); the protester had presented no evidence that small businesses lack the infrastructure to recruit, train, and manage employees and subcontractors, and the protester's own experience demonstrated that it was possible for a small business to gear up for a substantially increased workload quickly; and the protester's argument that small businesses lacked the financial resources for performance was speculative. The agency further argued that the contracting officer had reviewed sufficient information to allow her to make an informed business judgment that offers from at least two small businesses that were capable of performing could reasonably be expected, and that the protester's argument regarding improper reliance upon large business partners was speculative. In commenting on the agency report, the protester did not seek to rebut the Army's responses to the above arguments, but instead challenged the reasonableness of the contracting officer's finding that [deleted] and [deleted] were capable of satisfying the RFP's requirements. In this connection, the protester asserted that to set aside the procurement for small business, the contracting officer had to determine that offers would be obtained from at least two responsible small businesses, and that to be determined responsible, prospective contractors had to demonstrate, among other things, a satisfactory performance record and the necessary organization, experience, and technical skills to perform, or the ability to obtain them. Protester's Comments at 9. Six3 contends that the contracting officer did not reasonably assess whether [deleted] and [deleted] had the skills, experience, and organization necessary for successful performance, and that the record does not contain evidence supporting the contracting officer's conclusion that both companies had good past performance. At the outset, we note that the protester incorrectly asserts that before making a small business set-aside determination, a contracting officer must determine that offers will be received from two or more responsible small businesses. The FAR does not require a determination that offers will be received from two or more responsible small businesses--it requires only a determination that offers from two or more responsible small businesses may reasonably be expected. Moreover, in making set-aside decisions, agencies need not make either actual determinations of responsibility or decisions tantamount to determinations of responsibility with regard to prospective offerors; they need only make an informed business judgment that there are small businesses expected to submit offers that are capable of performing. ViroMed Labs., supra, at 3-4. In our view, the record here demonstrates a reasonable basis for the contracting officer's conclusion that both [deleted] and [deleted] are capable of performing. In their responses to the sources sought notice, prospective offerors were asked to self assess their teams' skill level in each of ten biometric functional areas on a scale of 1-5, with 1 representing little or no experience and 5 representing a high level of experience. [Deleted] represented that its team had a skill level of 4 or 5 in eight of the required functional areas, and a skill level of 3 in a ninth area, whereas [deleted] represented that its team had a skill level of 4 or 5 in nine of the required functional areas, and a skill level of 3 in the tenth area. The contracting officer found that both companies had grown significantly in the past year, demonstrating, in her view, that they were capable of taking on a sizeable workload increase and enlarging their operations to meet the requirements of the RFP. The contracting officer also found that both had good past performance, both had provided fair and reasonable pricing on other government contracts, and neither had delinquent federal debt. Six3 also alleges that [deleted] no longer qualifies as a small business because its average annual revenue for the past 3 years has exceeded $7 million. According to the protester, the contracting officer should have recalculated [deleted] average annual receipts in July 2011 using information regarding recent sales that [deleted] had posted on its website. We disagree. [Deleted] represented in its response to the sources sought notice that it was a small business under NAICS code 541690 and a service-disabled, veteran-owned small business, and that it was not scheduled to graduate from any small business programs within the next 365 days; moreover, the contracting officer verified that [deleted] continued to be certified as a small business when she conducted her summer-2011 market research. The contracting officer's reliance upon [deleted] self-representations and information available in the Dynamic Small Business database was clearly reasonable. Finally, Six3 argues that the contracting officer did not adequately document the basis for her finding that there was a reasonable expectation of award at fair market prices. We disagree. The contracting officer found that both [deleted] and [deleted] had provided fair and reasonable pricing under other government contracts, including an INSCOM multiple-award ID/IQ contract with an overall value of $492 million (the "Omnibus III" contract), and that it was evident from their work on the Omnibus III contract that "both [deleted] and [deleted] [were] able to provide fair market support to large requirements in both a U.S. and overseas setting." Contracting Officer's Memorandum for Record, Aug. 22, 2011, at 8. We think that it was reasonable for the contracting officer to conclude, based on the two offerors' general history of providing fair and reasonable pricing and on their specific history of providing fair and reasonable pricing under the Omnibus III contract, which has similarities to the contract here, that award at fair market prices could be expected here. We also note that the task orders to be issued under the multiple-award contract here will be competed among the awardees, and that the agency thus has a reasonable basis to anticipate price competition, resulting in fair market prices, for the task orders. (Six3 Systems, Inc., B-404885.2, October 20, 2011) (pdf) 2b1af7f3a8